9/28/10

Développement international et le déficit “d’attention”

Le Sommet des Nations Unies sur les Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement vient de prendre fin avec son lot de discussions passionnées, critiques, slogans, promesses et circonspections.

Le débat sur la manière la plus efficace de réduire le niveau de pauvreté endémique à certaines régions et la protection des populations les plus vulnérables continue et le sera pour longtemps car il n’existe pas de solution miracle. Ce débat se centre sur l’utilité de l’aide internationale. Les septiques quant  à la capacité de l’aide à sortir les PVD de la pauvreté se basent sur 50 ans d’aide aux pays d’Afrique sub-saharienne pour des résultats médiocres et l’enrichissement visible de dirigeants peu scrupuleux au détriment de la population générale. Ils ajoutent que l’aide est souvent conditionnée à des commandes préférentielles pour ne pas parler des intérêts géopolitiques qui déterminent le plus souvent qui reçoit l’aide et comment.

Mais peut-on conclure pour autant que l’aide au développement est un échec et que l’on ferait mieux d’annuler ceci pour se concentrer sur la promotion de la collaboration entre secteur privé et secteur public ? et promouvoir la croissance économique par l’entreprenariat comme fer de lance du développement (ainsi que le président Obama l’a clairement déclaré dans son discours sur le sujet la semaine passée) ?


Il m’est difficile de croire que la croissance économique par le secteur privé est la panacée aux soucis des populations les plus vulnérables. L’aide n’a certes pas sorti les pays comme Madagascar de la pauvreté chronique mais rien ne dit que la situation ne serait pas pire sans cette aide. L’aide au développement a beaucoup de problème à régler mais je pense que faire fi de tout le travail entrepris par les professionnels du développement sous prétexte que nos pays pataugent encore dans le semoule depuis des annees est trop simpliste. Par exemple, je ne vois vraiment pas comment un secteur privé plus dynamique arrivera à solutionner l’état navrant des hôpitaux à Madagascar et une couverture sociale quasi-inexistante (les témoignages de malgaches qu’on refuse de traiter car ils ne peuvent payer les couts des soins abondent par centaines) ou réduire le nombre d’enfants qui trainent dans les rues des grandes villes du Sud.

Mon autre souci en voyant le débat continuer ad vitam eternam entre gens du développement pour optimiser l’aide, c’est que l’on repousse et ostracise les personnes amateurs qui voudraient juste apporter leurs pierres à l’édifice de la solidarité « inter-humaines » qui si on y regarde de plus près, s’effiloche à vue d’œil.

Le discours sécuritaire en France et l’expulsion des Roms en a offusquaient plusieurs mais si cette mesure a été prise, c’est que des analystes politiques ont jugés qu’une frange importante de la population en serait favorable. Aux États-Unis, la dérive islamophobe a eu comme conséquence une mobilisation très faible pour venir en aide aux victimes des inondations au Pakistan.

 Mais de manière moins directe mais tout aussi indicative, la proportion de personnes qui lisent les nouvelles internationales diminue de manière préoccupante aux 4 coins du monde. On pensait que l’explosion des outils médiatiques rapprocheraient les populations mais bien au contraire, on peut maintenant sélectionner facilement les nouvelles qui nous intéressent et si on le désire, se passer totalement de ce qui peut bien se passer au delà de notre communauté immédiate. Les excuses sont toutes faites : train de vie trop contraignant, problèmes personnels à régler, le quotidien qui nous rattrape… et pourtant, on y passe du temps sur les médias numériques mais on regarde les matchs de foot live, la dernière vidéo virale sur YouTube ou les photos des amis sur Facebook (pour info, je viens de décrire mon menu de consommation numérique). Cette « atomisation » des médias n’est pas sans conséquence et pourrait s’avérer couteuse si ce n’est déjà le cas pour les victimes en Haïti et au Pakistan.

Les problèmes de "désolidarisation" ne se résument pas aux pays occidentaux, on l’observe dans les manifestations xénophobes en RSA, dans les discours politique ethnocentriques dans de multiples pays (dont Madagascar) dans notre capacité à regarder ailleurs quand un enfant en haillons fait la quête dans le parking car après tout, « on ne peut pas donner à tout le monde n’est-ce-pas ? » (encore une fois, expérience vécue).

Vous trouverez sur le web une communauté dynamique et vibrante, (principalement anglophone) d’acteurs du développement qui échangent idées, expériences et critiques sur l’humanitaire et le développement en général.
Voici quelques articles à lire absolument ( ne pas hésiter à utiliser « google translate » si il le faut) sur comment faire face à la mendicité, les erreurs que l’on répète périodiquement en matière d’aide internationale, ce qu’Obama a vu juste en matière de développement, le problème de la l’utilisation de la pauvreté et de la misère pour lever des fonds ou encore «poverty porn», le rôle essentiel des femmes, le respect dû aux personnes vulnérables et les problèmes de l’implication des multinationales ou des célébrités dans le développement.

Les points développés dans ces blogs sont importants à saisir et bien argumentés. Mais si je suis le noobie de base qui tombe par hasard sur ces blogs parce que je veux aider, je peux soit me dire : « le développement c’est complexe et ma foi intéressant » mais je peux aussi me dire: « pourquoi me fatiguer à me préoccuper de tout cela quand on voit la myriade de soucis à avoir avant qu’une bonne action soit réalisable ».
Je pense que le monde du développement est entrain de perdre la bataille du marché de l’attention. Pourquoi le citoyen se soucierait-il de la complexité d’acheminer l’aide à Kandahar quand il peut regarder son épisode favori de Friends quand il veut sur son ordi ? Peut-être que c’est mieux que les gens qui ont une attache minime ne s’engagent pas dans des situations qui leur sont peu familières. Mais va-t-on vraiment dire que l’on fait fi du potentiel de contribution de ces personnes qui faute de meilleures idées vont peut-être s’acheter une deuxième rolex ? Ou pire encore, se passer des compétences d’un ingénieur en hydraulique car il n’a pas le temps d’absorber les tenants et aboutissants de l’aide en Ethiopie ? Ce surplus cognitif dont Clay Shirky parle longuement doit etre considéré plus attentivement par le monde du développement.
Car la raison pour laquelle on s’est investi dans le domaine du développement est que la cause des plus vulnérables nous passionne et il devrait faire partie de notre répertoire que de partager cette passion sans verser dans le misérabilisme ou le « poverty porn ». Certes comme le titre de ce site formidable l’indique : « Les bonnes intentions ne suffisent souvent pas ».
Mais ne faisons pas l’erreur en identifiant les dérives de l’aide au développement de tarnir la passion  de ceux qui voudraient se lancer dans le domaine. Avec l’expérience vient souvent le cynisme, on le conçoit parfaitement car l’enfer est pavé de bonnes intentions.
Mais si le développement était vraiment une utopie d’une futilité impénétrable, on aurait déjà tous du partir planter des choux depuis belle lurette comme Zadigue.

 Faisons l'effort non seulement d’éduquer sur la manière de rendre l'aide au développement plus efficace mais aussi d'encourager les gens a s’intéresser au développement. C'est peut-être parfois frustrant mais c'est aussi souvent passionnant. 

Pour finir, j’aimerai signaler quelques articles qui illustre parfaitement sans faire d’excès de misérabilisme pourquoi la bataille du développement doit essayer d’unifier tous ses acteurs à continuer à pousser et non se distraire en divisions internes sur des débats plus ou moins idéologiques.

Sur les médias et la famine au Niger (Johanne Veilleux) :

Ce qui me préoccupe surtout, c’est qu’entre New York et Maradounfa, au Niger, nous sommes trop souvent le chaînon manquant, sensibilisés que nous sommes seulement un soir de temps en temps, quand les images véhiculées par les journaux deviennent insupportables. Ce qui me préoccupe surtout, c’est qu’au travers tous ces « oublis », Baratou est tombée dans un gros trou noir, avec 60 000 autres enfants nigériens.

à Madagascar :
sur les enfants (Madame Chocolat):

On me dit de ne pas donner de mauvaises habitudes, de ne pas cautionner la mendicité et puis j'entends doucement cette femme qui me dit "laisse le porter" avec des yeux plein d'amour et je vois le petit train d'enfants derrière elle qui chemine à bon pas entre les étals des marchants. Chacun avec un petit sac de légumes ou de fruits. Alors je dis oui à la petite ombre et je lui confie mes courses. L'enfant me suit, aussi petit que ma fille, certainement plus vieux, le visage gris, impassible de tant de souffrance. Je pense aux miens, aux visages roses, aux mains lisses et aux pieds crèmés. Je le regarde et lui demande si ça va, puis ma question me retombe dans la tête comme un coup de massue. Il à les pieds croutés, les orteils en sang. Il m'accompagne jusqu'à la voiture et je lui donne un petit billet qu'il froisse dans son poing. Une autre femme me conseille d'avoir toujours dans la boite à gants des petits paquets de biscuits individuel à distribuer et à ouvrir devant l'enfant. Pour qu'il ne puisse pas aller revendre le biscuit. Ces deux femmes sont nées ici et m'apportent beaucoup en peu de mots face aux discours blasés plein de méfiance et de jugements que j'entends depuis 1 mois. Vivre avec les petites ombres et ne pas en devenir une.

Et inégalité (besorongala) :

Every day when I go to my workplace, I must take two consecutive buses. On my way, I see some situations that make me think on the difficulties of our daily life. In fact, in the morning when I leave my apartment, I see people who are living in a hovel(trano hazo, trano baoritra), while in front there is a family located in a beautiful villa with lots of cars. On the bus, I see through the glass people who ride on beautiful cars (Hummer, Mercedes, BMW, four by four), while others walk on foot. Arriving in town, I see around me people wearing beautiful clothes and beautiful shoes(Nike, addidas) while others do not. At lunch time I see people eating in good restaurants while others do not even eat. Finally, on the weekend, when I go to the market, I see people spending a lot of money buying clothes, jewelry, while others do not even have Ariary 200 to buy bread.
Shit happens (R1lita):

The saying “You look for today what you’ll eat today” started to had a full sense to me. I was living it. I went to a uncle of mine to borrow some money and promised him I’d give it back as soon as possible. And I really wanted to keep my words but two months after my wife was robbed in a bus with a-month salary in her bag. I was hopeless, the little that I thought would help us was taken away from us.

Few days after, I made up my mind to start a little movie projection in my yard, so I could have people pay to watch movies. I went to the Fokontany to know what are the administrative papers I need to do to be able to set up this business. As of today, I’m still doing this business. Even though, we’ve been obliged to tighten our belts more than before, I find myself luckier than some of my workmates. I had to find other ways to get money because of Christmas and what it means to my kids (especially). No matter what is happening, I think they deserve to celebrate it as any other kids.

48 comments:

  1. Sympa ton article! Ça fait plaisir de voir des blogs en français sur le development international.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Salut Willem,

    Merci. Sympa les aventures en Ethiopie. On espere te lire bientot sur je sujet sur ton blog "interested in development". Il y a bien sur d'autres blogs francophones qui parle du sujet dont:
    http://prettyzoely.wordpress.com/developpement-durable-et-integral/
    http://johanneveilleux.wordpress.com/

    ReplyDelete
  3. Je lis ce billet à retardement, je viendrai me documenter chez toi aussi...Très intéressant...
    Mais comme tu l'as "souligné", c'est plus dans les "médias" anglophones que l'on découvre "les acteurs du développement qui échangent idées, expériences et critiques sur l’humanitaire et le développement en général." Et les autres gens se désintéressent quand ce n'est pas dit dans leur langue...

    ReplyDelete
  4. @Pretty Zoely,

    merci d'etre passe:

    Je n'ecris plus tres souvent, mais si je m'y remets, c'est cette tension entre langue, solidarite, medias citoyens et impact reel que j'aimerai explorer.

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